I don't know you, but I think a good idea would be to look for a chasson who is at the same stage of life as you.
Meaning, that he is also a baal teshuva and has a degree. There are many positives in this. First of all, he will understand your challenges and where you are coming from.
Something that I love about baal teshuvas is that they are so sincere in their desire to grow and have a relationship with Hashem. Another baal teshuva who is in the same stage of his growth will most likely share these values and that will be the foundation to a solid frum home.
As to having a balanced home full of yiddishkeit and being out in the world, I would recommend finding (if you haven't already) a mentor or rabbi whom you respect, has a lot of life experience, and will help you grow in your yiddishkeit. You should stay close to them wherever you decide to live and they will hopefully guide you in whatever challenges come up.
I don't know which communities are best suited for this, but I imagine most are fine. (With the exception of Lakewood.)
It can be harder for a baal teshuva to find a shidduch, but remember it is hard for the "ffb" girls as well. If you decide to look for a baal teshuva, there should be many more shidduchim redt for you. (I am no expert in this subject so I would ask someone else who might know more information about this. However, this is my common sense talking.)
I don't know if being to seminary will hurt you or not, it depends on what you are looking for in a spouse. However, if you do want to go to seminary, then I would recommend Shearim. It is a program located in Harnof, Jerusalem and is life-changing for the women who go there. You will also develop a support system with women in the same situation as you and the people there may be able to help with finding shidduchim. I have a close family friend who used to work there. She may know more information if you are interested. You can pm me.
As for girls who want a career in science being accepted in to the frum community, I think that it is not a problem. Then again, it of course depends on the community, but I think most communities are open to this.